Reasons of Miscarriage and How To Avoid

What Are The Common Reasons of Miscarriage and How To Avoid?

There are many reasons behind miscarriage, and these may be beyond your control. In this write-up, get insights on what causes miscarriage and learn who can be at high risk for pregnancy loss.

A miscarriage can be an extremely devastating event with enduring emotional repercussions. But one of the most difficult characteristics of pregnancy loss is not having proper knowledge about the reasons surrounding miscarriage.

In the case of early miscarriages, it can be really hard to determine the cause behind what went wrong. When you think about pregnancy, you are thinking about the beginnings of a human being that is forming and all the things that are going perfectly in making this miracle come true!

Sometimes things go wrong! So, the simplest way to think about it is that miscarriage is nature’s way of making sure that human beings are happy and compatible with their life.

While many couples who have had suffered a miscarriage often blame themselves, but the truth is that they have not done anything that has to lead to miscarriage. Here’s everything you need to know about the reasons for miscarriage, along with the tips to reduce the risk:

Why Do Miscarriages Happen?

One of the most common causes for miscarriage is a genetic abnormality in the embryo. But there are other factors which can be considered for miscarriage such as thyroid disorders, drug abuse, diabetes, immunological disorders, and more.

  • Chromosomal abnormalities – Up to 70% of first trimester miscarriages and 20% of second-trimester miscarriages happen because of a defect in the fetus’s genes. During the fertilization, the sperm and egg both contribute 23 chromosomes together to create perfectly matched pairs. As this is a complex process, hence a small glitch can end up in a genetic or chromosomal abnormality.

Miscarriages that are caused due to chromosomal abnormalities happen more often with women older than 35 years of age. This is because the eggs that are present with a woman will be with her since her birth, and the eggs also age with her. Paternal age also plays an important role. The frequency of miscarriage is 12-15% for women aged below 20 years and doubles as the woman are approaching their 40s. As per technology, there is nothing you can do to prevent miscarriage due to chromosomal abnormality, and once a miscarriage has begun, then there is nothing to stop it.

  • Diabetes – Women with diabetes have to closely associate with their primary care physician or endocrinologist to help balance their sugar control. Uncontrolled insulin-dependent diabetes can lead to increased miscarriage during the first trimester and also increase the risk of major birth defects. 
  • Thyroid disorders – Whether you are facing hypothyroidism (too low) or hyperthyroidism (too high), any thyroid disorders can cause recurrent miscarriages or lead to problems with infertility. If the thyroid function is low, your body will try to compensate by producing the hormones that suppress ovulation. On the other hand, if the thyroid is producing too many hormones then it can interfere with estrogen’s ability to do its job and makes the uterus unfavourable for implantation or can even lead to abnormal uterine bleeding. 
  • Physical complications – Physical complications are considered a less common cause of miscarriage and occur in the second or third trimester. Some examples include: 
    • Uterine fibroids interfere with the implantation of blood that is supplied to the foetus.
    • Some women have a septum, i.e., born with an uncommon uterine defect that is linked to miscarriage.
    • If any second-term abortions, a few women may develop bands of scar tissue near the uterus. This scar tissue keeps an egg away from implanting and hampers the blood flow that is passed to the placenta.
    • Any uterine defects can be detected through specialized x-rays before pregnancy. Most cases can be treated, which helps reduce the risk of miscarriage. 
  • Hormonal imbalances – Progesterone is a hormone that helps the uterine lining to support the foetus and also helps the placenta to take proper hold. If this hormone is not produced in the required amounts, then it can lead to multiple miscarriages. Remember that medication can help improve the odds of a successful subsequent pregnancy. 
  • Blood clotting disorders – Miscarriages can also occur from blood clotting disorders, which are rare, but they also occur. 
  • Using drugs, tobacco, alcohol during pregnancy – Certain lifestyle habits such as consuming alcohol or smoking during pregnancy, can lead to early miscarriage or pregnancy loss in the later trimesters. Hence, it is highly recommended to optimize your health to reduce the risk of miscarriage. 
  • Immunological disorders and Chronic illness – Certain autoimmune disorders play a role in miscarriage, especially when a woman is experiencing recurrent miscarriages. Some studies have also suggested that certain antibodies present can also cause recurrent miscarriages and lupus is an autoimmune disease that can result in miscarriage.

Other chronic illnesses that are linked to recurrent miscarriage include liver disease, heart disease and kidney disease. So, if you are having any chronic illness then it is better advised to consult an obstetrician who is experienced in caring for women with such chronic conditions.

How To Decrease The Risk of Miscarriage?

In many cases, it can be difficult to prevent miscarriages, especially when the cause is chromosomal abnormalities, and are not compatible with life. Even so, many doctors recommend optimizing your health before conceiving as to give your best shot for pregnancy.

Many doctors recommend women to visit their Gynaecologist to review any chronic conditions, begin their prenatal vitamins 2-3 months prior, review their diet and also ensure to not include alcohol and caffeine in their diets.

So, remember that, even if you have strictly followed all the advice provided by your healthcare provider, you may not prevent miscarriage from happening to you.

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